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Scientific Epidemic Prevention in Clean Room and Clean Workshop

Apr 17, 2020

Since the Spring Festival, the whole country has been shrouded in the heavy atmosphere brought by the new coronavirus pneumonia. Wuhan is closed and new cases have appeared in other parts of the country. Viruses are raging, touching people, preventing and controlling epidemics. The medical industry is always at the forefront. As the upstream industry of the medical industry, the clean room industry has also stepped onto the battlefield of epidemic prevention. The clean room industry mainly serves the design and construction of wards, laboratories, testing rooms, and operating rooms in the medical system. This article will discuss how the clean isolation ward plays a role in the prevention of epidemic viruses in the case of this new coronavirus. First, we must clarify the concept of isolation wards and general clean room wards. Isolation ward refers to a ward that gathers patients diagnosed with infectious diseases and uses physical measures to isolate them from other patients, thereby preventing pathogenic microorganisms from spreading through the air and protecting uninfected people from the threat of air pollution. Compared with ordinary wards, isolation wards have more guarantees in terms of manpower, material resources and technology to ensure good and timely treatment of patients diagnosed with infectious diseases.

1. Strict zoning.
The clean area, semi-contaminated area, and contaminated area of the infectious isolation ward are strictly partitioned and rationally arranged. A contaminated area is an area where there are patients or patient secretions, such as wards, toilets, bathrooms, toilets, and dirt clothes storage. The clean area refers to the area without the above pollution, such as the warehouse, pharmacy, sterilization room and duty room in the isolation area. The semi-polluted zone refers to the transition zone between the two, such as buffer rooms, isolation corridors, and preparation rooms. The three areas are well divided and have clear isolation signs and functional attributes. After this step is completed, the air will not be cross-contaminated by technology, equipment, personnel control, etc.
2. Differential pressure control.
Air flows from a high place to a low place. After the functional zoning of the isolation zone is planned, the pressure difference control is done to effectively prevent the air in the isolation ward from flowing out of the isolation zone. According to the air pressure difference between the isolation room and the neighboring room or outside, the isolation ward can be classified as follows:
Class S (standard pressure difference): used for isolation through contact transmission and mouth foam transmission.
Type N (negative pressure difference): used for isolation of airborne diseases.
Type P (positive pressure difference): used for isolation of patients with low immunity, such as: organ transplant patients
As we all know, this new coronavirus is spread by mouth-foam transmission and contact transmission. It is suitable for standard differential pressure control. Considering the scale of the epidemic and the high concentration of air c virus in the isolation area, the isolation of negative differential pressure The ward also applies. With reference to the provisions of the pressure difference in China's "Hospital Clean Building Technical Specifications" and "Biosafety Laboratory Building Technical Specifications", the pressure difference in the isolation ward can be controlled at: isolation toilet -20pa, isolation ward: -15pa, front room ): -10pa, clean area
The pressure difference gradient in the above isolation zone can effectively control the air flow direction. The airflow is a directional airflow from the clean area to the contaminated area, which can effectively prevent the outflow of contaminated air in the ward.
3. Ventilation and exhaust.
The isolation ward is equipped with a dedicated air-conditioning purification system, which generally adopts a new wind full exhaust method. The fresh air is triple filtered with primary, medium and high efficiency, and the air supply volume is 10-15 times / h, which can effectively reduce the concentration of infectious droplets in the isolation area. Isolation wards require no indoor circulation units, and exhaust air must be treated centrally, such as high-efficiency filtration, ultraviolet disinfection or high-temperature disinfection, to protect the surrounding environment from pollution.
4.Fourth, the flow control.
Organizing personnel movement is the primary prerequisite for infectious isolation wards. The new coronavirus spreads through droplets or contact for a long time and attaches to the protective devices of medical staff in large quantities, so the admission hospital will strictly control the movement of personnel. Medical staff work in accordance with the procedures of the clean area, semi-contaminated area, and contaminated area, and must pass through sanitary places such as dressing and washing every time they enter the first-level area. Medical staff and patients use different passages, and patients enter the isolation ward and enter through the peripheral corridor (contaminated passage). This design realizes that the clean route and the polluted route are separated and do not cross each other, thereby effectively isolating the virus
5. Logistics delivery window.
Medical staff corridors and isolation wards are provided with closed transmission windows for the delivery of food and medicine to patients. Patient catering is processed by the kitchen in the clean area and sent to the transfer window through the working channel. The dining car does not enter the isolation ward, effectively reducing personnel entry and exit. The contaminated waste used by patients is sealed and transferred from the contaminated channel to the incinerator or medical waste treatment center for centralized treatment, effectively preventing the virus in the isolation area from entering the clean area.

From the above introduction, it can be seen that the isolation wards of the hospital can be described as comprehensive and strictly guarded against viruses. To achieve this series, the prevention and design of isolation wards cannot be achieved without excellent technology and experience.

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